Table of Contents
Original: The project is almost complete.
Paraphrased: The task is nearly finished.
A review of the available literature was conducted.
Analysis of Housing Options for the Urban Poor at Pune
Your abstract might also contain keywords that you have used in your paper. Indent the text like you would for a new paragraph. After that, you can type Keywords: Italicized and then your keywords. Researchers will find your work if you include your keywords. As housing is an important factor to consider, a country must also list the keywords. If the country has a large population that is low-income and economically vulnerable, then low-cost or “affordable” housing should be considered. Pune is an Indian metropolis that has seen these challenges firsthand. Because there are not enough affordable and decent housing options, many urban poor end up living in slums. This paper analyzes the lack of houses for LIG/EWS classes. It also shows the effects of government programs.
An opening statement
Our country has always been concerned about housing. With increasing urbanization, it has also become a concern to house the poorer classes. This is done to improve living conditions for the poor and underprivileged, to give families better accommodation and to make them feel safer. Also, large Indian cities are becoming increasingly crowded with urban populations, which is making housing more difficult. Pune, which has been growing rapidly in recent decades, has joined the ranks of metro cities. In India, affordability can refer to many things. The term can also be used in different contexts. “Affordable housing” is for people who are economically poor (EWS) or low-income (LIG), and who want the same security and comfort as those who own their property/house. India’s EWS, LIG, and other lower income groups haven’t been given much attention. However, the current government has made a lot of changes and is working to fulfill their demands. These two sections are the largest segment of India’s population and their needs are being considered. There have been many initiatives and plans are in place to make these sections more attractive. This hasn’t worked because it is difficult to reach these housings. Better connectivity will make them more attractive as residential destinations.
Literature Review Affordable housing
Large metropolitan areas have to provide affordable housing for the poor, which is one of their biggest challenges. The urban poor are those with lower incomes. Private builders tend to work with middle-income groups. This has created slums as well as squatter settlements. The urban poor have found a solution to their housing problems.
Many studies have been conducted to determine the needs and issues of this crucial situation in cities. Affordable housing was then created. Affordable housing is primarily for the Lower Income Group, the Economically Weaker Sections and those who are in need of facilities such as schools, hospitals, or other community services.
First, select environmentally-friendly building materials that are less hazardous. This will increase the sustainability of design. A building’s lifecycle includes three phases: Prebuilding, Building, and Post-Building. Each stage should help conserve energy. These are the three stages that show how building materials move through different stages. Also, local materials are more cost-effective than long-distance transport. Locally available materials are more cost-effective and better suited to local environmental conditions.
Material should be recyclable and reusable. You can recycle and make newer materials from ex-plastic waste.
Scrap steel can be used in the manufacture of RCC bars and binding covers as well as other miscellaneous items for building construction.
Scenario Analysis of Housing for the Urban Poor (Pune) Housing and its options are a perennial concern in India. Urbanization has made housing more difficult than ever before. In India, large cities are becoming more populated, which is making housing in these cities even more difficult. Pune has become a popular destination for automobiles and auto-ancillaries. Pune’s industrial growth was further supported by the SEZ policy.
Pune Municipal Corporation has two major municipal bodies with distinct jurisdictions. The PMC is responsible for most of the area in the south and much of Pune City’s older parts, but the PCMC covers more northern areas.
WikiHouse, an open-technology foundation, aims to enable companies, governments, and organizations to collaborate to create new open technologies, standards and common infrastructures for housing, sustainable development, and other open technologies. This was created to help people understand the relationship between affordable housing, sustainable development, and how they can work together.
It aims to provide affordable, low-cost solutions to build high-performance, low-cost homes to all citizens. Digitization will also be used to allow existing industries to create, invest in, produce, and assemble more affordable, sustainable, and more affordable homes. It also emphasizes the distributed industry in housing, which is made up of small businesses, individuals and communities who build their homes and surround themselves with quality housing.
My reviews and secondary data are used to inform the research. This paper draws on secondary and primary market data. Secondary data was gathered via government policies such PradhanMantri Aswas Yojna or Housing for All by 2020, as well as real estate industry data obtained from magicbricks.com. Primary research was conducted using a series of questions that were asked to both developers and homebuyers. Both the developers and the homebuyers were asked questions that would help them to better understand the specific impact of government policy on their individual stakeholder.
I have also reviewed documentaries on Affordable Housing. The majority of the data and research used in this study are secondary.
Affordable housing will only succeed if people are open to accepting it as housing. However, there are other factors to consider. These sections don’t have direct access to the head department so they can’t get an answer to their problems. This results in unhygienic settlements being created. This leads to the question of whether affordable housing is better for urbanization. Is it sufficient for these low-income and economically poorer groups, as they make up the majority of the city’s population? Why isn’t affordable housing and low cost housing combined in a single task? Affordable Housing is it a success? Or just another government program?
While the current government policy regarding affordable housing is a boon for both the home buyer as well as the developer, it doesn’t give enough breathing room to the developer to ensure that a project is completed and delivered on time. The central government has suggested that the states implement the following measures: single-window clearance; preapproved building permission; layout approval system; additional FAR and higher densities. This will allow developers the required margin to finish their projects on schedule and without unnecessary delays.
It is true that affordable housing demand is huge and has many concerns. This is why builders/developers are becoming more cautious about entering this segment. Despite the fact that affordable housing sounds simple and straightforward, it is still difficult and unsolved by the government.
This is because there is no clear definition of affordable housing. The government needs to define affordable housing in India taking into consideration the various geographies. Additionally, the government must clarify what affordable housing is.
Current policy states that units should not exceed 30 sq.ft. to be registered as a project. For the metro areas, it is 60 sq. Meters for all other areas. The density at which a particular local authority has designated the project’s maximum unit count will affect the number of units allowed to be planned. Noida, for example, has a maximum density limit of 366 flats/hectare. The builder must plan a mixture of large and small units to make it possible to use the entire Floor Area Ratio (FAR), which is roughly the area that can be sold. If the builder wants to be part of the affordable housing plan, he must plan at minimum 90% of units smaller than 60 square feet. Minimum of 60 sq. meters. As the maximum unit size is only 366, the FAR of a builder cannot be achieved. However, 330 units should not exceed 60 sq. His total area of saleable land will be less, even though it could have been larger if there were more units. It is possible to solve this problem by having the local authority give higher density to affordable housing developments. This will allow builders more units on the same site and help them achieve their total FAR. The builder’s project viability is affected if he fails to reach his full FAR. This issue must be resolved among the state and central governments in order for affordable housing to become feasible.
GST could also be a barrier to affordable housing. A developer is currently entitled to a 75% service tax abatement, which takes into account the land costs in the final price. GST currently doesn’t allow for abatement of land. This will cause housing costs to rise as buyers will be required to pay GST on all consideration amounts. It is still to be determined if GST will apply to affordable housing. One of the biggest flaws in the affordable Housing Policy is that it sets the limits by the unit’s size, and not by its maximum price. Developers can price the unit at whatever price they want if the area is not larger than 60 square meters. meters. This is counterproductive to affordable housing’s purpose. Developers can reap all the benefits of affordable homes, yet charge a price that is higher than the buyer’s buying power. In order to maintain control over the cost of affordable housing, the government should provide single window clearance. The delay in completing projects can be as much as 3% each year due to the delays caused by the state approval authorities. The government must ensure that projects are completed on time and at minimal cost to pass the costs onto the buyer. Low-cost homes are often hindered by high land costs. State governments must increase the FAR of plots in the Affordable Housing Scheme. Developers will see a dramatic drop in FSI costs if they increase their FAR. The developer will make more money if there is more FAR. This is how the developer can increase his profit margins even if he sells less units.
The other side of this story is that affordable housing is not needed. If we believe that cities offer economic opportunities, are more energy efficient, and allow people to live near each other to learn and share their knowledge, then cities should be available to all. We believe that more housing is needed. If the number or quality of housing units meets or exceeds that of those who are in need, they will be more accessible, have greater mobility, and have more opportunities.